- Causes of Poverty
- Free Trade
- Consumption and Consumerism
- Sustainable Development
- Fair Trade
- Arms Control
- Arms Trade
- Conflicts in Africa
- International Criminal Court
- The Middle East
- War on Terror
- Foreign Policy
- Military Expansion
- The Need for NATO
- NATO and Kosovo
- Children, Conflicts and the Military
- Crisis in East Timor
- Crisis in Chechnya
Other Things of Interest
About this Web Site
War, Propaganda and the Media
"The first casualty when war comes is Truth" -- U.S. Senator Hiram Johnson, 1917
"a principle familiar to propagandists is that the doctrine to be instilled in the target audience should not be articulated: that would only expose them to reflection, inquiry, and, very likely, ridicule. The proper procedure is to drill them home by constantly presupposing them, so that they become the very condition for discourse." -- Noam Chomsky
"It is easier to dominate someone if they are unaware of being dominated. Colonised and colonisers both know that domination is not just based on physical supremacy. Control of hearts and minds follows military conquest. Which is why any empire that wants to last must capture the souls of its subjects." -- Ignacio Ramonet, "The control of pleasure", Le Monde diplomatique, May 2000
"What journalism is really about - it's to monitor power and the centres of power." -- Amira Hass, quoted by Robert Fisk, Amira Hass: Life under Israeli occupation - by an Israeli, The Independent, August 26, 2001
"Next the statesmen will invent cheap lies, putting the blame upon the nation that is attacked, and every man will be glad of those conscience-soothing falsities, and will diligently study them, and refuse to examine any refutations of them; and thus he will by and by convince himself that the war is just, and will thank God for the better sleep he enjoys after this process of grotesque self-deception." -- Mark Twain, The Mysterious Stranger, 1916, Ch.9
"In wartime, truth is so precious that she should always be attended by a bodyguard of lies." -- Winston Churchill (British Prime Minister during World War II)
Probably every conflict is fought on at least two grounds: the battlefield and the minds of the people via propaganda. The "good guys" and the "bad guys" can often both be guilty of misleading their people with distortions, exaggerations, subjectivity, inaccuracy and even fabrications, in order to receive support and a sense of legitimacy.
Elements of Propaganda
Propaganda can serve to rally people behind a cause, but often at the cost of exaggerating, misrepresenting, or even lying about the issues in order to gain that support.
Those who promote the negative image of the "enemy" may often reinforce it with rhetoric about the righteousness of themselves; the attempt is to muster up support and nurture the belief that what is to be done is in the positive and beneficial interest of everyone. Often, the principles used to demonize the other, is not used to judge the self, leading to accusations of double standards and hypocrisy.
As the various examples below will show, common tactics in propaganda often used by either side include:
- Using selective stories that come over as wide-covering and objective.
- Partial facts, or historical context
- Reinforcing reasons and motivations to act due to threats on the security of the individual.
- Narrow sources of "experts" to provide insights in to the situation. (For example, the mainstream media typically interview retired military personnel for many conflict-related issues, or treat official government sources as fact, rather than just one perspective that needs to be verified and researched).
- Demonizing the "enemy" who does not fit the picture of what is "right".
- Using a narrow range of discourse, whereby judgements are often made while the boundary of discourse itself, or the framework within which the opinions are formed, are often not discussed. The narrow focus then helps to serve the interests of the propagandists.
The above is also expressed in a similar way by Johann Galtung, a professor of Peace Studies and summarized here by Danny Schechter:
"[Professor] Galtung laid out 12 points of concern where journalism often goes wrong when dealing with violence. Each implicitly suggests more explicit remedies.
-- Danny Schechter, Covering Violence: How Should Media Handle Conflict?, July 18, 2001 (Emphasis Added)
The military often manipulates the mainstream media, by restricting or managing what information is presented and hence what the public are told. This has happened throughout the 20th century. Over time then, the way that the media covers conflicts degrades in quality, critique and objectiveness.
Similarly, in preparing for or justifying war, additional techniques are often employed, knowingly or unknowingly:
"Ottosen identifies several key stages of a military campaign to "soften up" public opinion through the media in preparation for an armed intervention. These are:
The Preliminary Stage - during which the country concerned comes to the news, portrayed as a cause for "mounting concern" because of poverty/dictatorship/anarchy;
The Justification Stage - during which big news is produced to lend urgency to the case for armed intervention to bring about a rapid restitution of "normality";
The Implementation Stage - when pooling and censorship provide control of coverage;
The Aftermath - during which normality is portrayed as returning to the region, before it once again drops down the news agenda.
O'Kane notes "there is always a dead baby story" and it comes at the key point of the Justification Stage - in the form of a story whose apparent urgency brooks no delay - specifically, no time for cool deliberation or negotiating on peace proposals. Human interest stories ... are ideal for engendering this atmosphere.
-- The Peace Journalist Option, Poiesis.org, August 1997
Award-winning investigative journalist, Phillip Knightley, in an article for the British paper, The Guardian also points out four stages in preparing a nation for war, as summarized and paraphrased from the article here:
- The crisis; (The reporting of a crisis which negotiations appear unable to resolve. Politicians, while calling for diplomacy, warn of military retaliation. The media reports this as "We're on the brink of war", or "War is inevitable", etc.)
- The demonisation of the enemy's leader; (Comparing the leader with Hitler is a good start because of the instant images that Hitler's name provokes.)
- The demonisation of the enemy as individuals; (For example, to suggest the enemy is insane.)
- Atrocities. (Even making up stories to whip up and strengthen emotional reactions.)
Knightley also points to the dilemma that while some stories are known to have been fabrications and outright lies, others may be true, but the "trouble is, how can we tell? The media demands that we trust it but too often that trust has been betrayed." The difficulty that honest journalists face is also hinted to in another article by Knightley:
"One difficulty is that the media have little or no memory. War correspondents have short working lives and there is no tradition or means for passing on their knowledge and experience. The military, on the other hand, is an institution and goes on forever. The military learned a lot from Vietnam and these days plans its media strategy with as much attention as its military strategy."
-- Phillip Knightley, Fighting dirty, The Guardian, March 20, 2000
The use of words is integral to propaganda techniques. Dr. Aaron Delwiche, at the School of Communications at the University of Washington, provides a web site discussing propaganda. As mentioned there, in 1937, in the United States, the Institute for Propaganda Analysis was created to educate the American public about the widespread nature of political propaganda. Made up of journalists and social scientists, the institute published numerous works. One of the main themes behind their work was defining seven basic propaganda devices. While there was appropriate criticism of the simplification in such classifications, these are commonly described in many university lectures on propaganda analysis, as Delwiche also points out. Delwische further classifies these (and adds a couple of additional classifications) into the following:
- Word Games
- Name-calling (labeling people, groups, institutions, etc in a negative manner)
- Glittering generality (labeling people, groups, institutions, etc in a positive manner)
- Euphemisms (words that pacify the audience with blander meanings and connotations)
- False Connections
- Transfer (Using symbols and imagery of positive institutions etc to strengthen acceptance)
- Testimonial (Citing individuals not qualified to make the claims made)
- Special Appeal
- Plain Folks (Leaders appealing to ordinary citizens by doing "ordinary" things)
- Band Wagon (The "everyone else is doing it" argument)
- Fear (Heightening, exploiting or arousing people's fears to get supportive opinions and actions)
(See the previous link for descriptions of these devices.) A vivid example of such use of words is also seen in the following quote:
Since war is particularly unpleasant, military discourse is full of euphemisms. In the 1940's, America changed the name of the War Department to the Department of Defense. Under the Reagan Administration, the MX-Missile was renamed "The Peacekeeper." During war-time, civilian casualties are referred to as "collateral damage," and the word "liquidation" is used as a synonym for "murder."
-- Dr. Aaron Delwiche, Propaganda Analysis, Propaganda Critic Web site, School of Communications, Washington University, March 12, 1995
Arthur Siegel, a social science professor at York University in Toronto, describes four levels of varieties of propaganda, as reported here by the Philadelphia Enquirer:
No matter how it is spread, propaganda comes in four basic varieties, said Arthur Siegel, social science professor at York University in Toronto, whose 1996 book Radio Canada International examines World War II and Cold War propaganda.
"The first level is the Big Lie, adapted by Hitler and Stalin. The state-controlled Egyptian press has been spreading a Big Lie, saying the World Trade Center was attacked by Israel to embarrass Arabs," said Siegel.
"The second layer says, 'It doesn't have to be the truth, so long as it's plausible.'
"The third strategy is to tell the truth but withhold the other side's point of view.
"The fourth and most productive is to tell the truth, the good and the bad, the losses and the gains.
"Governments in Western society take the last three steps. They avoid the Big Lie, which nobody here will swallow," Siegel said.
-- Beth Gillin, U.S. intensifies the war of words, The Philadelphia Inequirer, October 21, 2001
With the last point above, Siegel is pointing out that as well as "enemies" having propaganda mechanisms, we also have our own propaganda mechanisms.
But the issue of propaganda can go beyond just military influence and is not just limited to military related issues but identifying the nation as well:
"When there is little or no elite dissent from a government policy, there may still be some slippage in the mass media, and the facts can tend to undermine the government line. ... We have long argued that the "naturalness" of [the] processes [of indirectly pressing the media to keep even more tenaciously to the propaganda assumptions of state policy], with inconvenient facts allowed sparingly and within the proper framework of assumptions, and fundamental dissent virtually excluded from the mass media (but permitted in a marginalized press), makes for a propaganda system that is far more credible and effective in putting over a patriotic agenda than one with official censorship.
It is much more difficult to see a propaganda system at work where the media are private and formal censorship is absent. This is especially true where the media actively compete, periodically attach and expose corporate and government malfeasance, and aggressively portray themselves as spokesmen for free speech and the general community interest. What is not evident (and remains undiscussed in the media) is the limited nature of such critiques, as well as the huge inequality of the command of resources, and its effect both on access to a private media system and on its behavior and performance." (Emphasis Added)
-- Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent; The Political Economy of the Mass Media, (Pantheon Books, New York, 1988), pp. xiv, 1 - 2.
Political Scientist and author, Michael Parenti, in an article on media monopoly, also describes a pattern of reporting in the mainstream in the U.S. that leads to partial information. He points out that while the mainstream claim to be free, open and objective, the various techniques, intentional or unintentional result in systemmatic contradictions to those claims. Such techniques -- applicable to other nations' media, as well as the U.S. -- include:
- Suppression By Ommission: »
- He describes that worse than sensationalistic hype is the "artful avoidance" of stories that might be truly sensational stories (as opposed to sensationalistic stories).
- Such stories he says are often "downplayed or avoided outright" and that sometimes, "the suppression includes not just vital details but the entire story itself" even important ones.
- Attack and Destroy the Target: »
- Parenti says, "When omission proves to be an insufficient mode of censorship and a story somehow begins to reach larger publics, the press moves from artful avoidance to frontal assault in order to discredit the story".
- In this technique, the media will resort to discrediting the journalist, saying things like this is "bad journalism", etc., thus attempting to silence the story or distract away from the main issue.
- Labeling: »
- Parenti says that the media will seek to prefigure perceptions of a subject using positive or negative labels and that the "label defines the subject without having to deal with actual particulars that might lead us to a different conclusion". (Emphasis added)
- Examples of labels (positive and negative) that he points to include things like, "stability", "strong leadership", "strong defence", "healthy economy", "leftist guerrillas", "Islamic terrorists", "conspiracy theories", "inner-city gangs" and "civil disturbances". Others with double meanings include "reform" and "hardline".
- Labels are useful, he suggests, because the "efficacy of a label is that it not have a specific content which can be held up to a test of evidence. Better that it be self-referential, propagating an undefined but evocative image."
- Preemptive Assumption: »
- As Parenti says of this, "Frequently the media accept as given the very policy position that needs to be critically examined"
- This is that classic narrow "range of discourse" or "parameters of debate" whereby unacknowlegded assumptions frame the debate.
- As an example he gives, often when the White House proposes increasing military spending, the debates and analysis will be on how much, or on what the money should be spent etc, not whether such as large budget that it already is, is actually needed or not, or if there are other options etc. (See this site's section on the geopoltiics for more on this aspect of arms trade, spending, etc.)
- Face-Value Transmission: »
- Here, what officials say is taken as is, without critique or analysis.
- As he charges, "Face-value transmission has characterized the press's performance in almost every area of domestic and foreign policy"
- Of course, for journalists and news organizations, the claim can be that they are reporting only what is said, or that they must not inject personal views into the report etc. Yet, to analyze and challenge the face-value transmission "is not to [have to] editorialize about the news but to question the assertions made by officialdom, to consider critical data that might give credence to an alternative view." Doing such things would not, as Parenti further points out, become "an editorial or ideological pursuit but an empirical and investigative one".
- Slighting of Content: »
- Here, Parenti talks about the lack of context or detail to a story, so readers would find it hard to understand the wider ramifications and/or causes and effects, etc.
- The media can be very good and "can give so much emphasis to surface happenings, to style and process" but "so little to the substantive issues at stake."
- While the media might claim to give the bigger picture, "they regularly give us the smaller picture, this being a way of slighting content and remaining within politically safe boundaries". An example of this he gives is how if any protests against the current forms of free trade are at all portrayed, then it is with reference to the confrontation between some protestors and the police, seldom the issues that protestors are making about democratic sovereignty and corporate accountablity, etc. (See this sites, section on free trade protests around the world for a more detailed discussion of that aspect.)
- False Balancing: »
- This is where the notion of objectivity is tested!
- On the one hand, only two sides of the story are shown (because it isn't just "both sides" that represent the full picture.
- On the other hand, "balance" can be hard to define because it doesn't automatically mean 50-50. In the sense that, as Parenti gives an example of, "the wars in Guatemala and El Salvador during the 1980s were often treated with that same kind of false balancing. Both those who burned villages and those who were having their villages burned were depicted as equally involved in a contentious bloodletting. While giving the appearance of being objective and neutral, one actually neutralizes the subject matter and thereby drastically warps it."
- (This aspect of objectivity is seldom discussed in the mainstream. However, for some additional detail on this perspective, see for example, Phillip Knightley in his award-winning book, The First Casualty (Prion Books, 1975, 2000 revised edition).)
- Follow-up Avoidance: »
- Parenti gives some examples of how when "confronted with an unexpectedly dissident response, media hosts quickly change the subject, or break for a commercial, or inject an identifying announcement: "We are talking with [whomever]." The purpose is to avoid going any further into a politically forbidden topic no matter how much the unexpected response might seem to need a follow-up query.
- This can be knowingly done, or without realizing the significance of a certain aspect of the response.
- Framing: »
- "The most effective propaganda" Parenti says, "relies on framing rather than on falsehood. By bending the truth rather than breaking it, using emphasis and other auxiliary embellishments, communicators can create a desired impression without resorting to explicit advocacy and without departing too far from the appearance of objectivity. Framing is achieved in the way the news is packaged, the amount of exposure, the placement (front page or buried within, lead story or last), the tone of presentation (sympathetic or slighting), the headlines and photographs, and, in the case of broadcast media, the accompanying visual and auditory effects."
- Furthermore, he points out that "Many things are reported in the news but few are explained." Ideologically and politically the deeper aspects are often not articulated: "Little is said about how the social order is organized and for what purposes. Instead we are left to see the world as do mainstream pundits, as a scatter of events and personalities propelled by happenstance, circumstance, confused intentions, bungled operations, and individual ambition -- rarely by powerful class interests."
Furthermore, with concentrated ownership increasing (as is discussed in detail in the next section on this site) a narrower range of discourse can arise, sometimes without realizing. The consequences of which are nicely summed up by this following quote from UK media watchdog, MediaLens:
Focusing on leaders' thoughts is often a kind of propaganda. It involves repeating the government line without comment, thereby allowing journalists to claim neutrality as simple conduits supplying information. But it is not neutral to repeat the government line while ignoring critics of that line, as often happens. It is also not neutral to include milder criticism simply because it is voiced by a different section of the establishment, while ignoring more radical, but perhaps equally rational, critiques from beyond the state-corporate pale. A big lesson of history is that it is wrong to assume that power, or 'respectability', confers rationality. Media analyst Sharon Beder describes the reality of much mainstream reporting:
"Balance means ensuring that statements by those challenging the establishment are balanced with statements by those whom they are criticising, though not necessarily the other way round."
Talk of leaders' 'hopes' teaches us to empathise with their wishes by personalising issues: "Blair desperately hopes to build bridges in the Middle East." This is also a kind of propaganda based on false assumptions. It assumes that the reality of politicians' 'hopes' - their intentions, motivations and goals - is identical to the appearance. Machiavelli was kind enough to explain what every politician knows, and what almost all corporate media journalists feign not to know:
"It is not essential, then, that a Prince should have all the good qualities which I have enumerated above [mercy, good faith, integrity, humanity, and religion] but it is most essential that he should +seem+ to have them; I will even venture to affirm that if he has and invariably practises them all, they are hurtful."
-- David Edwards, Correcting for the distorted vision of the corporate media, Media Lens, November 27, 2001
As mentioned above just concentrating and reporting on the "official line" without offering a wider set of perspectives can also impact people's opinions. In another article, MediaLens also highlights this and the impact it has on how global issues are perceived:
One of the secrets of media manipulation is to report the horror and strife of the world as though Western power, interests and machinations did not exist. Vast poverty, injustice and chaos in the Third World are depicted as unconnected to the cool oases of civilisation in Europe and the United States, which look on benignly but helplessly, or pitch in heroically to right wrongs as far as they are able. The idea, for example, that the vast economic and military might of North America might in some way be linked to the vast poverty and suffering of neighbouring Central and South America is unthinkable.
An important feature of the reporting that maintains this audacious deception - not consciously but through an internalised sense of what is 'just not done' - is to relay our enemies' 'claims' of benign motives +as+ claims, while reporting our governments' claims without comment, or as obviously true - the message, tirelessly repeated, gets through to the public and an important propaganda function is thereby fulfilled. This is called 'honest, factual reporting'.
-- David Edwards, Burying Big Business, Media Lens, May 22, 2002
Furthermore, media watchdog, Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR) did a study of ABC World News Tonight, CBS Evening News and NBC Nightly News in the year 2001 in which they found that "92 percent of all U.S. sources interviewed were white, 85 percent were male and, where party affiliation was identifiable, 75 percent were Republican." While of course this is not a complete study of the mainstream media, it does show that there can be heavy political biases on even the most popular mainstream media outlets.
With military conflicts then, reporting raises an interesting dilemma for some; one the one hand, the military wish to present various aspects that would support a campaign, while on the other hand, a journalist is supposed to be critical and not necessarily fall in line. The is captured well by Jane Kirtley, a professor of Media Ethics and Law:
Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, journalist F. Colburn Adams wrote, "The future historian of the late war will have [a] very difficult task to perform ... sifting the truth from falsehood as it appears in official records."
Similar to the oft-repeated axiom that truth is the first casualty of war, Adams' observation succinctly summarizes the nub of the conflict between the military and the news media. The military's mission is to fight, and to win, whatever conflict may present itself-preferably on the battlefield but certainly in public opinion and the history books. The journalist, on the other hand, is a skeptic if not a cynic and aims to seek, find and report the truth -- a mission both parties often view as incompatible with successful warfare, which depends on secrecy and deception as much as superior strategy, tactics, weaponry and manpower.
-- Jane Kirtley, Enough is Enough, Media Studies Journal, October 15, 2001
The military throughout most recent conflicts then, have tried hard to control media in subtle ways, either through organizing media sessions and daily press briefings, or through providing managed access to war zones and so forth.
Military control of information during war time is also a major contributing factor to propaganda, especially when the media go along with it without question. The military know the value of the media and information control very well.
"Information is the currency of victory" an August 1996 U.S. Army field manual, 100-6 says, as Maud Beelman, director of the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, points out. From a military's perspective, information warfare is another front on which a battle must be fought. However, as well as needing to deceive adversaries, in order to maintain public support, information to their own public must no doubt be managed as well. That makse sense from a military perspective. Sometimes the public can be willing to scacrifice detailed knowledge. But that can also lead to unaccountability and when information that is presented has been managed such, propaganda is often the result. In the same article where Beelman mentions the above, she also describes this Information Operations to manage information:
"For reporters covering this war [on terrorism], the challenge is not just in getting unfettered and uncensored access to U.S. troops and the battlefield - a long and mostly losing struggle in the past - but in discerning between information and disinformation. That is made all the more difficult by a 24-hour news cycle, advanced technology, and the military's growing fondness for a discipline it calls "Information Operations." IO, as it is known, groups together information functions ranging from public affairs (PA, the military spokespersons corps) to military deception and psychological operations, or PSYOP. What this means is that people whose job traditionally has been to talk to the media and divulge truthfully what they are able to tell now work hand-in-glove with those whose job it is to support battlefield operations with information, not all of which may be truthful.
-- Maud S. Beelman, The Dangers of Disinformation in the War on Terrorism, Coverage of Terrorism Women and Journalism: International Perspectives, from Nieman Reports Magazine, Winter 2001, Vol. 55, No.4, p.16. (from The Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University)
Danny Schechter, also referring to the article above by Beelman, describes Information Operations more bluntly as being "a way of obscuring and sanitizing that negative-sounding term "propaganda" so that our "information warriors" can do their thing with a minimum of public attention as they seek to engineer friendly write ups and cumulative impact." This, he points out, can be accomplished via several strategies:
- Overloading the Media: »
- This can be done by providing too much information!
- Schechter gives an example of the Kosovo War, where "briefers at NATO's headquarters in Belgium boasted that this was the key to information control. 'They would gorge the media with information,' Beelman writes, quoting one as saying, "'When you make the media happy, the media will not look for the rest of the story.'""
- Ideological Appeals: »
- A common way to do this is to appeal to patriotism and safeguarding the often unarticulated "national interest"
- Schechter describes, how Condaleezza Rice and other Bush administration officials persuaded the networks to kill bin Laden videos and other Al-Jazeera work during the initial months after the September 11 2001 tragedy. This is nothing new, however, as he points out; "All administrations try to seduce and co-opt the media." (and of course, this happens all around the world.)
- Schechter describes the ramifications: "It is this ideological conformity and world view that makes it relatively easy for a well-oiled and sophisticated IO propaganda machine to keep the U.S. media in line, with the avid cooperation of the corporate sector, which owns and controls most media outlets. Some of those companies, such as NBC parent General Electric, have long been a core component of that nexus of shared interests that President Eisenhower called the military-industrial complex. As Noam Chomsky and others have argued, that complex has expanded into a military, industrial and MEDIA complex, in which IO is but one refinement."
- Spinning Information: »
- Press briefings by military institutions such as NATO, Pentagon etc, where journalist's questions are answered and information is presented is of course a form of spin. It is the spin that the military will put on it.
- Journalists no doubt expect this, but true to many media propaganda models, seldom are such "official" statements verififed and followed up on, especially if from one's own nation, with whom there is often a lot of trust. A result of this is propaganda and spin becoming the official version.
- Withholding Information: »
- Of course, the military can often hide behind this one!
- Sometimes from a military operational perspective it can be understood why they don't want to give much (or any) real details. Looked in isloation from other issues, this seems like an understandable and acceptible military strategy.
- Yet, when combined with the other propaganda strategies, it is another way to withold information.
- Co-Option And Collusion: »
- As Danny Schechter asks on this issue, "But why do we in the media go along with this approach time and again? We are not stupid. We are not robots. Too many of us have DIED trying to get this story (and other stories). Ask any journalists and they will tell you that no one tells them what to write or what to do. Yet there is a homogenized flavor and Pentagon echo to much coverage of this war that shames our profession. Why? Is it because reporters buy into the ideology of the mission? Because there are few visible war critics to provide dissenting takes? Or is it because information management has been so effective as to disallow any other legitimate approach? An uncritical stance is part of the problem. Disseminating misinformation often adds up to an inaccurate picture of where we are in this war."
- Stratfor, a global intelligence consultant comments on the war on terrorism saying that the media have become cheerleaders as "Coverage of the 'war on terrorism' has reversed the traditional role between the press and the military." The problem with this, as they continue, is that "The reversal of roles between media and military creates public expectations that can affect the prosecution of the war." Or, more bluntly put, the media becomes an effective mouthpiece for propaganda.
Often, and especially when covering conflicts, the media organizations are therefore subject to various constraints by governments, military, corporate pressure, economic interests, etc. Sometimes, however, the media are more than willing to go along with what could be described as self-censorship, as highlighted vividly in the following:
""We live in a dirty and dangerous world. There are some things the general public does not need to know about and shouldn't. I believe democracy flourishes when the government can take legitimate steps to keep its secrets and when the press can decide whether to print what it knows.""
-- Katharine Graham, Washington Post owner speaking at CIA's Langley, Virginia headquarters in 1988, Reported in Regardie's Magazine, January, 1990, Quoted from David McGowan, Derailing Democracy, (Common Courage Press, 2000), p.109.
Other times, the sources of information are limited. For example, "Information warfare" of a military or government might be targeted at "enemy" nations and groups, but often affects their own populations:
"In [many cases], the U.S. and other western news media depend on the military for information.... And when the information that military officers provide to the public is part of a process that generates propaganda and places a high value on deceit, deception and denial, then truth is indeed likely to be high on the casualty list."
-- William M. Arkin, Media principles: Killed by friendly fire in US infowar, Index on Censorship, 13 November 2002
Journalist Harold Evans addresses the issue of war correspondents duties, as being the challenge of patriotism versus professionalism:
The history of warfare suggests this is not a false antithesis. Governments, understandably, put a priority on nurturing the morale of the armed forces and the people, intimidating an enemy with the force of the national will They have few scruples about whether they are being fair and just as their propaganda demonizes an alien leader or even a whole population. The enemy is doing the same to them. That is the emotion wars generate, inviting a competitive ecstasy of hate. There is a duel in vicious stereotypes in propaganda posters, illustrations and headlines; populations would be astounded if they could see how they and their leaders are portrayed by the other side. Authority resents it when a newspaper or broadcast shades the black and white.
... Atrocity stories have been debased currency in the war of words. The other side's are propaganda and should be ignored or discredited by patriotic correspondents; ours are an integral part of the cause, and should be propagated with conviction, uniting people in vengefulness for a cause higher than pedantry. Only after the conflict, the zealots' argument runs, is there time enough to sift the ashes for truth. History knows now that the Germans did not, as charged in World War I, toss Belgian babies in the air and catch them on bayonets, nor boil down German corpses for glycerin for munitions - a story invented by a British correspondent being pressed by his office for news of atrocities. The French did not, as the German press reported, routinely gouge out the eyes of captured German soldiers, or chop off their fingers for the rings on them. Iraqi soldiers invading Kuwait did not toss premature babies out of incubators, as The Sunday Telegraph in London, and then the Los Angeles Times, reported, quoting Reuters. The story was an invention of the Citizens for a Free Kuwait lobby in Washington and the teen-age "witness" who testified to Congress was coached by the lobby's public relations company. It was only two years later that the whole thing was exposed for the fraud it was. But the myth galvanized public opinion at a critical moment on the need to go to war, as it was intended to.
... History is a mausoleum of errant emotions: Who is the more patriotic - the government that conceals the blunders its soldiers endure, the cruelties they may inflict, or the correspondent who exposes them so that they might be rectified?
... [In the dilemmas journalists often have between reporting and intervening], Alan Dower, who reported the Korean War for the Melbourne Herald ... reporter Rene Cutforth and cameraman Cyril Page saw a column of women in Seoul being marched off to jail; many were carrying babies. The journalists were told the families were all to be shot because someone in the street had identified them as communists. Dower, who was a commando before he was a reporter, was carrying a carbine. He used it to bully his way into the jail, where the trio of journalists found that the women had been made to kneel with their babies in front of an open pit, two machine guns at their backs. Dower threatened to shoot the guard unless he took the trio to the prison governor's office. There Dower aimed his carbine at the governor and threatened: "If those machine guns fire, I'll shoot you between the eyes." Dower, making another threat, that of publicity, secured a promise from the United Nations command in Seoul that it would stamp out such practices.
Did Dower break the normal limits of journalism? Yes, and he was right to do so. One's first duty is to humanity, and there are exceptional occasions when that duty overrides the canons of any profession.
-- Harold Evans, Propaganda vs. Professionalism, War Stories, Newseum (undated)
Phillip Knightley, in his award-winning book The First Casualty traces a history of media reporting of wars and conflicts and towards the end says:
The sad truth is that in the new millenium, government propaganda prepares its citizens for war so skillfully that it is quite likely that they do not want the truthful, objective and balanced reporting that good war correspondents once did their best to provide.
-- Phillip Knightley, The First Casualty, (Prion Books, 1975, 2000 revised edition) p.525
As a result, it is important to keep such elements of propaganda in mind when we see coverage of conflicts or even other issues in the media, regardless of the media organization and their apparent reputation.
In the following pages, some examples of propaganda and the media (both as a participant in the propaganda, knowingly or unknowingly, and sometimes both), are presented. However, while some of the specific pages may seem long, these are a very few examples, and over time, more will be added.
For now though, the examples chosen reflect some of the more notable issues that did turn up in the mainstream, and so to some extent, a lot of people are familiar with these issues, but maybe not some of the deeper issues that were obscured by propaganda of various sorts.
The impacts of such propaganda contributed to the loss of millions of lives for it helped form a sense of legitimacy to what could otherwise have been regarded as controversial. Propaganda therefore comes with a huge cost.
The following is perhaps an ominous warning, given the source:
Naturally the common people don't want war: Neither in Russia, nor in England, nor for that matter in Germany. That is understood. But, after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. ... Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the peacemakers for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country.
-- General Herman Goering, President of German Reichstag and Nazi Party, Commander of Luftwaffe during World War II, April 18, 1946. (This quote is said to have been made during the Nuremburg Trials, but in fact, while during the time of the trials, was made in private to an Allied intelligence officer, later published in the book, Nuremburg Diary.)
People say that in war people will die, for it is inevitable in war. Yet, in many cases, war itself is not inevitable, and propaganda is often employed to go closer to war, if that is the preferred foreign policy option. Indeed, once war starts, civilian casualties are unfortunately almost a guaranteed certainty.
The links below are additional pages within this section on this web site. Simply click on one to read more.